Accuracy of the Kirchhoff-approximation and Kirchhoff-Ray-Mode Fish Swimbladder Acoustic Scattering Models.

The acoustic backscatter from pressure release prolate spheroids and a three-dimensional representation of a fish swimbladder (Chilean jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus murphyi) was calculated using four target strength models (Kirchhoff-approximation, Kirchhoff-ray-mode, finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation, and prolate-spheroid-modal-series).

Smoothly varying errors were found in the Kirchhoff-approximation and Kirchhoff-ray-mode model results when compared to the other models, and provide objective criteria for constraining the use of the KA and KRM models. A generic correction technique is also proposed for the prolate spheroid estimates and tentatively tested on a jack mackerel swimbladder, resulting in improvements to the target strength estimates from the Kirchhoff-approximation and Kirchhoff-ray-mode models.


xPLOS ONE 8(5): e64055. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064055